Certain types of problems are presented more frequently. Some examples and a few key symptoms are:
Anxiety and phobias
These are the most prevalent disorders; they peak in presentation during adolescence and can be of various types. Anxiety is an angst or uncomfortable reaction that appears in different situations and triggers problems in daily life. Conversely, phobias are reactions of intense fear related to specific stimuli, which the sufferer usually tries to avoid by modifying his or her behaviour.
A common pathology, known particularly for symptoms such as sadness, worry and a lack of motivation. However, depression also causes a range of other symptoms. Above all, people with depression feel immense melancholy and difficulty with continuing their normal daily lives. Many patients look for effective solutions to the problem(s) they are experiencing.
Emotional reactions to physical illnesses
People who suffer illnesses (whether skin conditions, gastric complaints, the effects of an accident, muscular symptoms etc.) could take a long time to resume their life or to adapt to living with their symptoms. They may also feel guilt, rejection, or fail to adapt in a way that would promote their recuperation or treatment. These are different examples of emotional and behavioural reactions that could be present when facing an illness or its development.
Bereavement and grief
these reactions come from suffering a lost. Mourning is usually related to the death of a loved one, but can also be caused by other events such as the loss of a job, the break-up of a relationship, a change of school etc. Grief is an adaptive process to assimilate the loss. However, this process is sometimes so complicated, painful or prolonged that it is counter-productive. If this occurs, it is best to ask for help.
Inappropriate conduct, anger and a lack of rage control – or in extreme cases, committing an offence or crime. All these are considered as behavioural problems and are often linked with the teenage years. They can, however, occur at other times of life and for different reasons – not just due to a lack of educational support. There are ways to manage whatever causes this behaviour, in addition to modifying it to achieve stability.
A trauma is any kind of event that causes us to feel intense fear and, usually, a sensation of lack of control. These experiences are normally related to serious events that have threatened our own life or that of someone close to us. We also consider a trauma to be all of those different kinds of experience that are difficult to overcome. If any previous such life event remains keeps replaying in one’s mind as though it were still happening, or if it comes constantly to the forefront of one’s thoughts, or if it is affecting the present and cannot be assimilated, this can be due to trauma.
By definition, a chronic pain is pain that is present for more than six months, with or without the injury which caused it initially. The Spanish Pain Society (SED) has compiled a list of the most effective techniques for treating this problem at medical and psychological levels. We have worked within these guidelines and proved their effectiveness. The techniques set out diverse strategies including relaxation, problem solving, setting and planning objectives and others. Applying these strategies to chronic pain could have a positive impact on our daily life and our mood.
Oncology processes and the phases through which treatment passes during an illness can be difficult and disconcerting. It is not uncommon to experience feelings of lack of control, uncertainty towards the future, sadness and blame or anger. Life expectancy is becoming longer and the capacity to face a treatment with these characteristics is so linked to the daily strategies one employs. Each phase of the treatment has special techniques that have been proven to help deal with it.
Specialising in children’s mental development and health, paediatric psychology is related principally to the detection and management of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), providing guidelines to confront enuresis (involuntary urination or bedwetting), encopresis (lack of bowel control, often fear-related) and other problems such as obesity and sleep difficulties. We provide support, strategies and guidelines for these as well as other topics closely linked to physical and developmental areas.